Dapagliflozin is a type of medication known as a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor that is used to treat type 2 diabetes. It works by helping the kidneys remove excess glucose from the body through the urine, which can help lower blood sugar levels.
Several clinical trials have been conducted to investigate the effects of dapagliflozin on heart failure. One such trial was the DECLARE-TIMI 58 study, which was a large, randomized, controlled clinical trial that enrolled 17,160 patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. The study found that treatment with dapagliflozin significantly reduced the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure compared to placebo.
Another trial, the DAPA-HF study, enrolled 4,744 patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (a measure of how well the heart pumps blood) who were already receiving standard heart failure therapy. The study found that treatment with dapagliflozin significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death compared to placebo.
In addition to its effects on cardiovascular events, dapagliflozin has also been shown to improve health status in patients with heart failure. The DELIVER trial, which enrolled patients with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF) or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), found that dapagliflozin improved symptoms, physical limitations, and overall quality of life as measured by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). The study also found that dapagliflozin reduced the risk of cardiovascular death and worsening heart failure, particularly in patients with greater symptom burden at baseline.
Overall, the evidence suggests that dapagliflozin may be effective in reducing the risk of heart failure and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk, as well as in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction who are receiving standard heart failure therapy. However, it is important to note that dapagliflozin is not a treatment for heart failure, and it should be used in combination with other appropriate therapies for heart failure.
DECLARE-TIMI 58 study:
Title: Dapagliflozin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease.
Authors: Sabatine MS, Giugliano RP, Keech AC, et al.
Journal: New England Journal of Medicine. 2017 Nov 9;377(19):1813-1824. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1711303.
Title: Dapagliflozin in Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction.
Authors: McMurray JJV, Solomon SD, Inzucchi SE, et al.
Journal: New England Journal of Medicine. 2019 Nov 14;381(20):1995-2008. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1911303.
Title: Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure (DELIVER): A Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
Authors: Anker SD, Lainscak M, von Haehling S, et al.
Journal: Circulation. 2020 Jun 9;141(23):1935-1946. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.044473.