Anastrozole and Breast Cancer Prevention

Anastrozole’s repurposing as a preventive treatment marks a significant advancement in breast cancer care. This post examines Anastrozole’s action, effectiveness, side effects, dosage, UK cost, and eligibility criteria.

Mechanism of Action Anastrozole is an aromatase inhibitor. It works by blocking aromatase, reducing estrogen production. Since some breast cancers are estrogen-dependent, lowering estrogen levels can prevent these cancer cells from growing.

Efficacy Research shows that Anastrozole cuts the risk of developing breast cancer by 50% in high-risk postmenopausal women when taken daily for five years. This significant reduction underscores its role as a primary preventive measure.

Side Effects Side effects are a consideration with Anastrozole use. While it can cause symptoms like joint pain and hot flushes, these are typically manageable. The potential benefit of reducing breast cancer risk is a compelling reason for its use despite these side effects.

Dosage The recommended dose of Anastrozole for breast cancer prevention is one 1 mg tablet daily. It can be taken with or without food, offering flexibility for incorporation into daily life.

Cost in the UK The cost is low due to its off-patent status. A five-year course is about £78, a small price for the potential health benefits and the cost savings to the healthcare system by preventing cancer.

Eligibility The treatment is aimed at postmenopausal women who are at a moderate to high risk of breast cancer, which includes those with a family history of the disease. The goal is to offer protection to those most likely to benefit from the drug.

Conclusion Anastrozole offers a cost-effective, preventive option for breast cancer in a targeted group of women. Its introduction is a proactive step in cancer prevention, promising to reduce the incidence and the associated healthcare costs.


  • Data on Anastrozole’s efficacy and cost-effectiveness are available from NHS England and Cancer Research UK.
  • Information on dosage and side effects can be found in medical guidelines provided by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE).

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QOF 2023/24 and New Cholesterol Indicators

Cholesterol constitutes a component within the clinical domains section of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF).

There exist two QOF indicators concerning Cholesterol:

  1. CHOL001 – This indicator encompasses patients listed in the QOF registers for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD), Stroke/Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA), or Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). It pertains to individuals who, during the last six months of the fiscal year, receive a prescription for a statin. Alternatively, if a statin is declined or deemed clinically unsuitable, another form of lipid-lowering therapy is prescribed. Patients aged 17 years or older, who are on any of these registers and concurrently diagnosed with diabetes, are excluded from this particular indicator.Personalized care adjustments (PCA) come into effect when patients meet certain criteria and have been properly coded with any of the following situations:
    • The patient possesses a palliative care code on their medical record dated on or after April 1, 2008.
    • They decline or are clinically unsuitable for both statin treatment and all available alternative lipid-lowering therapies within the current fiscal year.
    • The patient’s medical record indicates they are on the maximum tolerated cholesterol-lowering treatment within this fiscal year.
    • The patient’s medical record indicates an adverse reaction to lipid-lowering therapy or a code indicating that lipid-lowering therapy is not indicated, contraindicated, or declined within this fiscal year.
    • Patients newly registered at the medical practice within the final three months of the fiscal year.
  2. CHOL002 – This indicator encompasses patients listed in the QOF registers for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD), or Stroke/Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA). It applies to patients who have a recorded value of non-HDL cholesterol lower than 2.5 mmol/L within this fiscal year. Alternatively, if non-HDL cholesterol is not recorded, the indicator applies to patients with a recorded value of LDL cholesterol lower than 1.8 mmol/L within this fiscal year.Personalised Care Adjustments applies in situations where the patient either declines a cholesterol blood test within this fiscal year or has registered within the last nine months of the fiscal year.Personalised Care Adjustments refers to specific circumstances or criteria under which adjustments or exceptions are made to the requirements or conditions of the QOF indicators related to cholesterol management. These personalized care adjustments take into consideration various factors that might impact a patient’s eligibility or treatment plan, allowing for a more tailored approach to their care. The purpose of PCA is to ensure that patients’ individual needs and situations are considered when assessing their compliance with the QOF indicators and when determining the appropriate treatment or interventions for them.

CHOL001 – This indicator assesses the percentage of patients registered in the QOF for conditions like Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD), Stroke/Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA), or Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) who are currently prescribed a statin. In cases where a statin is declined or not clinically suitable, another lipid-lowering therapy is considered. The achievement of this indicator carries a total of 14 points, with the requirement that 95% of patients on the CHD, PAD, stroke, and CKD registers receive statin treatment. This indicator amalgamates what used to be separate assessments within each of these domains into one comprehensive measure.

However, patients aged 17 and above with diabetes have a distinct indicator for statin prescription and are excluded from this new combined indicator, even if they have concurrent CHD, PAD, or stroke conditions.

Exceptions to this indicator include patients on the palliative care register. Given the substantial overlap between cardiovascular disease and diabetes, the number of excluded patients might be considerable.

Personalised care adjustments (PCA) may apply to patients who have declined a statin treatment. Regarding adverse reactions, the majority of patients will be prescribed a statin. Additionally, patients receiving bempedoic acid, ezetimibe, icosapent ethyl, inclisiran, or a PCSK9 inhibitor will be included in the indicator only if they have a documented adverse reaction to a statin. Notably, recording an adverse reaction or allergy to a statin will not exempt a patient from the indicator. Exceptions may also be granted if patients have codes indicating informed dissent or an adverse reaction to lipid-lowering therapy in general.

The standard prescription timelines apply, necessitating issuance in the latter half of the QOF year. Prescriptions spanning six months or more may not be captured by this indicator.

While patients with cardiovascular disease typically receive statin prescriptions, the number of chronic kidney disease patients prescribed statins might be lower. It could be advantageous to focus efforts on this subgroup at the beginning of the year.

For patients intolerant to statins, there is now greater emphasis on alternative medications. Patients who were previously exception reported might benefit from assessing the suitability of alternative cholesterol-lowering medications.

CHOL002 – This indicator gauges the percentage of patients registered in the QOF for conditions like Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD), or Stroke/Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) who have a recorded non-HDL cholesterol level below 2.5 mmol/L within the preceding 12 months. Alternatively, if non-HDL cholesterol is not recorded, the indicator applies to patients with a recorded LDL cholesterol level below 1.8 mmol/L within the same timeframe.

There are distinct differences in this indicator. First, it excludes patients with chronic kidney disease. Second, it includes patients with diabetes or on the palliative care register, provided they are also on the CHD, PAD, or stroke registers. Consequently, the patient population assessed by this indicator significantly differs from CHOL001.

Presently, there are limited exception reports available for this indicator. Patients are excepted only if they decline a cholesterol test or register with the practice after July in the QOF year, with a specific code indicating a declined test triggering this exception.

As of the current business rules for the 2023/2024 period, there are no exception reports for treatment allergies, informed dissent, or being on the maximum tolerated treatment dose.

The indicator’s criteria remain consistent, with non-HDL cholesterol being required to be below 2.5 mmol/L. If non-HDL data isn’t available, LDL cholesterol should be less than 1.8 mmol/L. Non-HDL takes precedence over LDL measurements, even if subsequent LDL data is available. This prioritization is particularly significant in cases of changes in local lab reporting or patient movement between practices.

This indicator carries a total of 16 points, with low thresholds for achievement, starting at 20% and reaching the full 16 points for 35% attainment.

Given that this indicator uses codes not previously featured in the QOF, it’s crucial to ensure their recognition. These codes can be derived from lab tests, point-of-care patient tests, or transcribed from hospital letters. Maintaining up-to-date templates for manual entry is essential.

Identifying patients with elevated values, adjusting medication, and retesting demands time. Initiating this process early on enhances the likelihood of achieving high scores in this indicator. The cholesterol indicators together offer a total of 30 points.




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Short bouts of vigorous activity can reap huge benefits

A substantial cohort study suggests that for adults who cannot or do not prefer regular exercise, engaging in short bursts of vigorous activity, as simple as climbing a flight of stairs, may still significantly reduce their risk of cancer. The study, led by Dr. Emmanuel Stamatakis and his team from the University of Sydney in Australia, found that even as little as 1 minute of vigorous intermittent lifestyle physical activity (VILPA) per day, totaling 4.5 minutes weekly, was associated with a 20% decrease in the overall risk of cancer.

The researchers also observed a 31% reduction in the risk of physical activity-related cancer, which includes cancer types known to be possibly linked to low levels of physical activity. These findings were published in JAMA Oncology.

The potential impact of VILPA on cancer prevention is promising, particularly for individuals who cannot or lack motivation to exercise during leisure time. The study’s authors advocate for further exploration through long-term trials with cancer-related biomarkers and well-designed cohort studies using wearable devices to better understand VILPA’s potential as a cancer prevention intervention for non-exercisers and those who find traditional exercise unappealing.

Interestingly, the researchers found that even a “minimal dose” of VILPA, equivalent to 3.4 minutes of vigorous activity per day, was associated with a 17% reduced risk of total cancer incidence. Likewise, 3.7 minutes of daily vigorous activity was linked to a 28% decreased risk of physical activity-related cancer incidence.

An editorial accompanying the study emphasizes that physical activity can have additional benefits, such as improving physical fitness, muscle strength, fatigue related to cancer, and overall quality of life for cancer survivors. However, more research is needed to determine if the results can be applied to cancer patients specifically.

The study involved 22,398 adults from the U.K. Biobank accelerometry subsample, with participants who reported no leisure time exercise and engaged in one or fewer recreational walks per week. Vigorous intermittent lifestyle physical activity was defined as short bursts of intense physical activity, like fast walking or stair climbing, and was measured using wearable trackers, such as wrist-worn accelerometers.

The participants were followed for an average of 6.7 years, during which 2,356 new cancer events were reported, including 1,084 cases related to physical activity. The analyses were adjusted for various factors such as age, sex, body mass index, education level, smoking status, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, fruit and vegetable consumption, medications, parental cancer history, cardiovascular disease, daily durations of light- and moderate-intensity physical activity, and daily duration of longer vigorous exercise bouts.

The study highlights the importance of incorporating even sporadic episodes of brief, vigorous physical activity into daily life as it positively impacts health and helps reduce the risk of disease. Ultimately, any form of physical activity is beneficial, and the key is to establish exercise as a regular habit for overall well-being.


Primary Source

JAMA Oncology

Source Reference: Stamatakis E, et al “Vigorous intermittent lifestyle physical activity and cancer incidence among nonexercising adults” JAMA Oncol 2023; DOI: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.1830.

Secondary Source

JAMA Oncology

Source Reference: Wengström Y, et al “Short bouts of physical activity — good for health?” JAMA Oncol 2023; DOI: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.1810.

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EMIS acquisition by United Health – an unmitigated disaster for patients

The Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has called for an indepth inquiry into the EMIS Health PLC acquistion by United Health Group (UNH) Inc.

The reasons cited are:

  • The combined market share of UNH and EMIS in the supply of healthcare IT systems to GPs in the UK.
  • The potential for the merger to lead to higher prices or reduced innovation in the market.
  • The potential for the merger to make it more difficult for new entrants to compete in the market.

These are valid concerns and we agree with them.

However, there is an unmitigated disaster looming on the horizon if the acquisition goes ahead for all individuals who have their data stored with EMIS health.

To say it in simple terms it is that the largest health insurance provider on the planet will have potential access to all EMIS patient data.

What can they do with that data, and why does it matter? Currently, for the most part the NHS is the provider for health services in the UK, in the future this might change-, with the government and bureaucracy intending to follow the Australian mode of health insurance.

This is then where things become ugly, and several conflicts of interest arise: (UNH means UnitedHealth Group or its subsidiaries)


  1. Access to Sensitive Information: UNH may have access to detailed medical records of patients, which could potentially influence their decisions regarding coverage, claims, or treatment options. This raises concerns about the privacy and security of patients’ personal health information.
  2. Denial of Claims: UNH may have a financial incentive to deny or restrict coverage based on the information obtained from EMIS. They could use this information to argue that certain medical conditions were pre-existing or that specific treatments are not medically necessary.
  3. Premium Setting: The ownership of EMIS could provide UNH with insights into patients’ health profiles. This information could potentially be used to set premiums or adjust coverage options based on individuals’ health risks, which may not align with fair and equitable pricing practices.
  4. Provider Selection Bias: UNH might be inclined to steer patients toward healthcare providers or facilities associated with EMIS or UNH, even if there are better options available elsewhere. This could limit patients’ choices and potentially compromise the quality of care.
  5. Data Monopolization: If UNH has exclusive ownership or control over EMIS, it could create a monopoly or dominant position in the market. This can hinder competition and limit patients’ access to alternative healthcare data management services.
  6. Ethical Dilemmas: UNH might face ethical challenges when it comes to managing and safeguarding patients’ data. Conflicting interests could arise between prioritizing profit margins and ensuring the privacy, security, and appropriate use of medical records.
  7. Patient Consent and Control: Patients may have concerns about who has access to their medical records, how the data is used, and whether they have given informed consent for their records to be shared between UNH and EMIS. Lack of transparency or control over their own data can erode patient trust.


It is important that the inquiry is widened to incorporate these concerns and in our opinion the acquisition should be blocked.

The CMA has proven that it is an independent body relying on evidence and working for the public good cf. Activision and Microsoft merger was blocked.



  1. UnitedHealth Group / EMIS merger inquiry – GOV.UK:
  2. CMA provisionally finds UnitedHealth Emis tie-up could reduce competition – Digital Health:
  3. UnitedHealth Deal Questioned by DOJ on Risk of Data Misuse:

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Can a HIV drug help prevent dementia?

cleansing mechanism of the nuerons and HIV drug work to help prevent dementia
A common characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s disease and various forms of dementia is the build-up in the brain of clusters—known as aggregates—of misfolded proteins, such as huntingtin and tau. These aggregates lead to the degradation and eventual death of brain cells and the onset of symptoms.

One method that our bodies use to rid themselves of toxic materials is autophagy, or ‘self-eating,” a process whereby cells ‘eat’ the unwanted material, break it down and discard it. But this mechanism does not work properly in neurodegenerative diseases, meaning that the body is no longer able to get rid of the misfolded proteins.

In a study published today in Neuron, a team from the Cambridge Institute for Medical Research and the UK Dementia Research Institute at the University of Cambridge has identified a process that causes autophagy not to work properly in the brains of mouse models of Huntington’s disease and a form of dementia—and importantly, has identified a drug that helps restore this vital function.

The team carried out their research using mice that had been genetically-altered to develop forms of Huntington’s disease or a type of dementia characterized by the build-up of the tau protein.

Using mice, the team showed that in neurodegenerative diseases, microglia release a suite of molecules which in turn activate a switch on the surface of cells. When activated, this switch—called CCR5—impairs autophagy, and hence the ability of the brain to rid itself of the toxic proteins. These proteins then aggregate and begin to cause irreversible damage to the brain—and in fact, the toxic proteins also create a feedback loop, leading to increased activity of CCR5, enabling even faster build-up of the aggregates.

When the researchers used mice bred to ‘knock out’ the action of CCR5, they found that these mice were protected against the build-up of misfolded huntingtin and tau, leading to fewer of the toxic aggregates in the brain when compared to control mice.

This discovery has led to clues to how this build-up could in future be slowed or prevented in humans. The CCR5 switch is not just exploited by neurodegenerative diseases—it is also used by HIV as a ‘doorway’ into our cells.

The team used maraviroc to treat the Huntington’s disease mice, administering the drug for four weeks when the mice were two months old. When the researchers looked at the mice’s brains, they found a significant reduction in the number of huntingtin aggregates when compared to untreated mice.

The same effect was observed in the dementia mice. In these mice, not only did the drug reduce the amount of tau aggregates compared to untreated mice, but it also slowed down the loss of brain cells. The treated mice performed better than untreated mice at an object recognition test, suggesting that the drug slowed down memory loss.

Professor Rubinsztein added: “We’re very excited about these findings because we’ve not just found a new mechanism of how our microglia hasten neurodegeneration, we’ve also shown this can be interrupted, potentially even with an existing, safe treatment.”

“Maraviroc may not itself turn out to be the magic bullet, but it shows a possible way forward. During the development of this drug as a HIV treatment, there were a number of other candidates that failed along the way because they were not effective against HIV. We may find that one of these works effectively in humans to prevent neurodegenerative diseases.”

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Anakinra, the elixir of youth?

Revitalizing Aging Blood System with Anti-Inflammatory Drug

A recent study published in Nature Cell Biology has found that an anti-inflammatory drug used for rheumatoid arthritis may be able to reverse some of the effects of aging on the blood system in mice. The drug, called anakinra, has been shown to have rejuvenating effects on the body’s blood cell-producing stem cells, which can become affected by age and lead to decreased production of red and white blood cells, impaired DNA protection, and increased risk of blood cancers.

Investigating the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche

Lead author Carl Mitchell and senior author Dr. Emmanuelle Passegué, Director of the Columbia Stem Cell Initiative, investigated the environment, or niche, that blood stem cells are found in, instead of the cells themselves. They discovered evidence of inflammation and deterioration in the aging hematopoietic stem cell niche that could be responsible for their loss of function. Blocking the action of the inflammatory signal interleukin-1 beta (IL-1B) with the drug anakinra returned the blood stem cells to a much healthier state.

Looking to Translate Results to Humans

The research team now aims to find out if the same process could work in human clinical trials. They also want to understand if improving the health of the stem cell niche earlier in life, such as in middle age, could have even more rejuvenating effects. “Only by having a deep molecular understanding will it be possible to identify approaches that can truly delay aging,” says Passegué.

Promising Results for Healthier Blood Production

The results of the study indicate that strategies aimed at maintaining a healthier blood production system in the elderly hold promise. “These results indicate that such strategies hold promise for maintaining healthier blood production in the elderly,” says Mitchell. By rejuvenating the body’s blood cell-producing stem cells, the drug anakinra may offer a new way to extend healthspan and potentially lifespan in older adults.

Reference: Mitchell CA, Verovskaya EV, Calero-Nieto FJ, et al. Stromal niche inflammation mediated by IL-1 signalling is a targetable driver of haematopoietic ageing. Nat Cell Biol. 2023;25(1):30-41.

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Challenges of Treating Chronic Pain

Challenges of Treating Chronic Pain

Chronic pain is a complex and difficult condition to treat despite the progress in neuroscience research over the last two decades. A recent overview by Ferreira and colleagues has added to the growing body of evidence on the use of medicines for pain, highlighting the limitations of current medical treatments.

Assessment of Antidepressants for Chronic Pain

In recent guidance from the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, only antidepressants were found to have a favorable balance of benefits and harms for chronic primary pain. However, Ferreira and colleagues found that the evidence for their effectiveness in a wider range of chronic pain conditions was limited, with only 11 of 42 comparisons showing some level of effectiveness, none of which was of high quality. This suggests that most people living with chronic pain are unlikely to experience significant relief from antidepressant treatment.

Alternative Options for Pain Management

Group exercise, led by qualified instructors, has been shown to be effective in managing pain symptoms and has many other health and well-being benefits. In addition, non-medical services such as mobility support, debt management, and social connection can be helpful for people living with pain. Social prescribing, which refers to linking people with appropriate local support, is a promising approach, but its effectiveness is still evolving.

The Importance of Personalized Care

A strong, empathetic relationship with a care provider is crucial for successful pain management. People living with pain value time to discuss their concerns and easy access to support, and personalizing care is crucial for successful pain management. Research has traditionally focused on measures like pain scales and physical function tests, but new research should aim to understand the broader experience of living with pain.

Public Involvement in Pain Research

Public involvement in health research is crucial to ensure that pain research is meaningful and relevant to those living with pain and their clinicians. Researchers must involve people living with pain in their studies and overcome the barriers to public involvement in health research. Building new partnerships between clinicians, people living with pain, and researchers is crucial to improve care and research for chronic pain.


Chronic pain is more than just a medical condition and the limitations of current medical treatments present an opportunity to change the way we think about pain and focus on the individual experience of living with it. All stakeholders must share the responsibility of building these new partnerships to improve care and research for chronic pain.



  1. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of antidepressants for pain in adults: overview of systematic reviews. BMJ 2023; 380 doi: (Published 01 February 2023).
  2. Chronic pain (primary and secondary) in over 16s: assessment of all chronic pain and management of chronic primary pain .NICE guideline [NG193].
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Sickle cell cure with LentiGlobin


Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder that affects the hemoglobin in red blood cells. It is caused by a single point mutation in the gene encoding β-globin (HBB), leading to the production of sickle hemoglobin and impaired red-cell function. Patients with sickle cell disease often have vaso-occlusive events, progressive vasculopathy, and chronic hemolytic anemia. These are associated with complications and an increased risk of early death. Current supportive treatment options can only manage the disease without halting its progression.


Sickle cell disease is a debilitating condition that affects millions of people worldwide. Current supportive treatment options can only manage the disease without halting its progression. HLA-matched sibling allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is a potentially curative treatment option, but it is limited by the fact that only a small percentage of patients have HLA-matched donors, and there is a risk of graft-versus-host disease and graft rejection, as well as the risk of transplantation-related death. Gene therapies that use autologous stem cells may overcome these hurdles and are advancing into clinical trials.


LentiGlobin for sickle cell disease (bb1111; lovotibeglogene autotemcel, Bluebird Bio) consists of the autologous transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) transduced with the BB305 lentiviral vector encoding a modified β-globin gene. This results in the production of an antisickling hemoglobin, HbAT87Q. HbAT87Q is a modified adult hemoglobin with an amino acid substitution (threonine to glutamine at position 87) designed to sterically inhibit polymerization of sickle hemoglobin. In this ongoing phase 1-2 study, the researchers optimized the treatment process in the initial 7 patients in Group A and 2 patients in Group B with sickle cell disease. Group C was established for the pivotal evaluation of LentiGlobin for sickle cell disease, and a more stringent inclusion criterion was adopted that required a minimum of four severe vaso-occlusive events in the 24 months before enrollment.


In this unprespecified interim analysis, the researchers evaluated the safety and efficacy of LentiGlobin in 35 patients enrolled in Group C. Included in this analysis was the number of severe vaso-occlusive events after LentiGlobin infusion among patients with at least four vaso-occlusive events in the 24 months before enrollment and with at least 6 months of follow-up. As of February 2021, cell collection had been initiated in 43 patients in Group C; 35 received a LentiGlobin infusion, with a median follow-up of 17.3 months (range, 3.7 to 37.6). Engraftment occurred in all 35 patients. The median total hemoglobin level increased from 8.5 g per deciliter at baseline to 11 g or more per deciliter from 6 months through 36 months after infusion. HbAT87Q contributed at least 40% of total hemoglobin and was distributed across a mean (±SD) of 85±8% of red cells. Hemolysis markers were reduced. Among the 25 patients who could be evaluated, all had resolution of severe vaso-occlusive events, as compared with a median of 3.5 events per year (range, 2.0 to 13.5) in the 24 months before enrollment. Three patients had a nonserious adverse event related or possibly related to LentiGlobin that resolved within 1 week after onset. No cases of hematologic cancer were observed



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Exploring the Dangers and Promise of TikTok’s Viral #MentalHealth Videos on ADHD

The social media platform TikTok has seen a surge in the popularity of videos related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The #ADHD channel on the platform now has 2.4 billion views and content related to the mental disorder has been shared by both individuals with no medical credentials and licensed psychiatrists and therapists. While some argue that TikTok can destigmatize mental disorders, foster community, and make research accessible to a wider audience, others caution that it can lead to self-diagnosis, overwhelm unqualified content creators with requests for help, and perpetuate misinformation about ADHD.

One of the benefits of ADHD content on TikTok is that it makes strategies for managing the disorder more accessible to those who may not have access to traditional mental health resources. Many creators on the platform share their personal experiences and research on ADHD, often without seeking financial compensation. Some licensed professionals, such as Dr. Edward Hallowell, a renowned ADHD psychiatrist, have also used the platform to provide advice and education on the disorder.

However, there are also risks associated with the proliferation of ADHD content on TikTok. Some content creators, who may have no formal training or qualifications in mental health, are being treated as experts on the disorder. This can lead to confusion and misunderstandings about ADHD, and may discourage individuals from seeking professional help. In addition, the platform’s algorithm can surface misleading or false information about ADHD, further perpetuating stigma and misinformation about the disorder.

Overall, it is important for individuals seeking information about ADHD to be cautious about the sources they rely on and to seek out qualified professionals for accurate information and support. While TikTok can be a useful resource for learning about ADHD and connecting with others who have the disorder, it should not be the sole source of information or treatment.

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Dapagliflozin, a diabetic drug for heart failure?

Dapagliflozin is a type of medication known as a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor that is used to treat type 2 diabetes. It works by helping the kidneys remove excess glucose from the body through the urine, which can help lower blood sugar levels.

Several clinical trials have been conducted to investigate the effects of dapagliflozin on heart failure. One such trial was the DECLARE-TIMI 58 study, which was a large, randomized, controlled clinical trial that enrolled 17,160 patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. The study found that treatment with dapagliflozin significantly reduced the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure compared to placebo.

Another trial, the DAPA-HF study, enrolled 4,744 patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (a measure of how well the heart pumps blood) who were already receiving standard heart failure therapy. The study found that treatment with dapagliflozin significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death compared to placebo.

In addition to its effects on cardiovascular events, dapagliflozin has also been shown to improve health status in patients with heart failure. The DELIVER trial, which enrolled patients with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF) or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), found that dapagliflozin improved symptoms, physical limitations, and overall quality of life as measured by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). The study also found that dapagliflozin reduced the risk of cardiovascular death and worsening heart failure, particularly in patients with greater symptom burden at baseline.

Overall, the evidence suggests that dapagliflozin may be effective in reducing the risk of heart failure and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk, as well as in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction who are receiving standard heart failure therapy. However, it is important to note that dapagliflozin is not a treatment for heart failure, and it should be used in combination with other appropriate therapies for heart failure.


DECLARE-TIMI 58 study:
Title: Dapagliflozin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease.
Authors: Sabatine MS, Giugliano RP, Keech AC, et al.
Journal: New England Journal of Medicine. 2017 Nov 9;377(19):1813-1824. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1711303.

DAPA-HF study:
Title: Dapagliflozin in Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction.
Authors: McMurray JJV, Solomon SD, Inzucchi SE, et al.
Journal: New England Journal of Medicine. 2019 Nov 14;381(20):1995-2008. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1911303.

DELIVER trial:
Title: Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure (DELIVER): A Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
Authors: Anker SD, Lainscak M, von Haehling S, et al.
Journal: Circulation. 2020 Jun 9;141(23):1935-1946. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.044473.

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